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Latest Science

At Kellogg, we are always up to date with the latest science, particularly the science related to the importance of breakfast, grains and breakfast cereals.


April 2017: Intestinal bacteria may protect against type 2 diabetes

 

Vanessa D. de Mello et al. Indolepropionic acid and novel lipid metabolites are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study. Sci Rep. Apr. 2017

 

This research from the University of Eastern Finland showed that a high concentration of indolepropionic acid in the serum could protect against type 2 diabetes. Indolepropionic acid is a metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria, and its production is boosted by a fibre-rich diet such as whole grains and high fibre food. A higher concentration of indolepropionic acid seemed to promote insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells, which may explain the protective effect and produce new lipid metabolites that improve insulin resistance and lower inflammation.

 

 

April 2017: Short chain fatty acids may protect against type 1 diabetes

 

Eliana Mariño et al. Gut microbial metabolites limit the frequency of autoimmune T cells and protect against type 1 diabetes. Nature Immunology 18, 552–562 (2017)

 

This study showed that a diet generating high amounts of the short-chain fatty acids, acetate and butyrate provided a beneficial effect on the immune system and could protect against type 1 diabetes. This research found that feeding mice spontaneously develop type1 diabetes diets, high levels of acetate or butyrate improved the integrity of the gut lining, reduced pro-inflammatory factors, and promoted immune tolerance.

 

 

April 2017: Whole grains and milk may protect against colorectal cancer

 

Vieira AR. Et al. Foods and beverages and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies, an update of the evidence of the WCRF-AICR Continuous Update Project. Ann Oncol. 2017 Apr 12

 

As part of the World Cancer Research Fund International Continuous Update Project, 400 individual studies were included in a systematic review. The results show that a higher intake of red and processed meat and alcohol increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Milk and whole grains may have a protective role. Risk of developing colorectal cancer is decreased by 17% for each 90g/day increase of whole grains.

 

 

April 2017: Plant protein may protect against type 2 diabetes, meat eaters at greater risk

 

Virtanen HE et al. Intake of different dietary proteins and risk of type 2 diabetes in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Br J Nutr. 2017 Apr 11:1-12

 

A new study from the University of Eastern Finland adds to the growing body of evidence indicating that the source of dietary protein may play a role in the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The results showed that men who had the highest intake of plant protein were at 35% lower risk of developing T2D compared with men who had the lowest intake of plant protein. The men with high intake of plant protein also led a healthier lifestyle.

 

 

March 2017: Clarity on trending cardiovascular nutrition controversies

 

Freeman AM et al. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies. J Am Coll Cardiol. March 2017 doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.10.086

 

This review from JACC addresses some of the most popular foods and dietary patterns that have received significant media interest for promoting cardiovascular health and to provide health professionals with accurate information for their patients. Available evidence supports cardiovascular benefits of nuts, olive oil and other vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables, plant-based diets and plant-based proteins such as from whole grains.

 

 

March 2017: Eating whole grain foods instead of refined grains can help maintain a healthy weight

 

Karl JP et al. Substituting whole grains for refined grains in a 6-wk randomized trial favourably affects energy-balance metrics in healthy men and postmenopausal women. Am J Clin. Nutr. March 2017. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.139683

 

A 6-week randomised single- blind comparative study to analyse the effect of whole grains and high fibre intakes compared to refined grains only. Results showed that the group who consumed whole grains had increased resting metabolic rate and greater faecal energy losses. Furthermore, the increases in faecal energy losses were not related to the extra fibre intakes but from the effect of the fibre on the digestibility of other food calories.

 

 

March 2017: Clarity on trending cardiovascular nutrition controversies

 

Freeman AM et al. Trending Cardiovascular Nutrition Controversies. J Am Coll Cardiol. March 2017 doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.10.086

 

This review from JACC addresses some of the most popular foods and dietary patterns that have received significant media interest for promoting cardiovascular health and to provide health professionals with accurate information for their patients. Available evidence supports cardiovascular benefits of nuts, olive oil and other vegetable oils, green leafy vegetables, plant-based diets and plant-based proteins such as from whole grains.

 

 

January 2017: Foods rich in resistant starch benefit health

 

Lockyer S and Nugent AP. Health effects of resistant starch. Nutrition Bulletin 2017 doi:10.1111/nbu.12244

 

The review summarises the potential mechanisms of action involved from food rich in resistant starch (RS) in postprandial glycaemia, satiety and gut health. There is consistent evidence that consumption of RS may be particularly helpful for managing diabetes by helping control blood sugar levels. It has also been suggested that RS can support gut health by modulating the composition of gut microbiota and enhance satiety via increased production of short chain fatty acids. There is some evidence that RS can counteract the detrimental effects of high red meat intake on colorectal cancer risk and emerging evidence of RS as an ingredient in oral rehydration solutions.

 

 

November 2016: Skipping breakfast and not enough sleep may cause children to become overweight

 

Y Kelly et. al. BMI Development and Early Adolescent Psychosocial Well-Being: UK Millennium Cohort Study. Pediatrics Nov 2016.DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-0967

 

This observational study examined different predicting factors of children BMI development by collecting data of children born into 19,244 families in the UK. Measures of height and weight were collected at the age of 3, 5, 7 and 11 years old.

This study examined predicting factors of BMI development during the first 10 years of life and found that mothers smoking during pregnancy, children skipping breakfast and late bedtime or insufficient sleep could impact on their future BMI.

The study suggests that disrupted routines, illustrated by irregular sleeping patterns and skipping breakfast, could influence weight gain through increased appetite and over-consumption of energy-dense foods.                             

 

 

July 2016: Higher cereal fibre intake is associated with lower all-cause mortality

 

Hajishafiee et.al. Cereal fibre intake and risk of mortality from all causes, CVD, cancer and inflammatory diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
Br J Nutr. 2016; 116(2): 343-52. doi: 10.1017/S0007114516001938.

 

The systematic review and meta-analysis found a significant inverse association between cereal fibre intake and mortality from all-causes, CVD and cancer, but not from inflammation-related mortality.  Compared with the lowest category of fibre consumption, people with the highest consumption of cereal fibre had a 19% lower risk of all causes mortality, 18% lower risk of CVD and 15% lower risk of cancer.

 

  

June 2016: Higher wholegrain intake is significantly associated with lower risk of all-cause mortality.

 

Chen G-C et. al. Whole-grain intake and total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr.  doi: 10.3945/ajcn.115.122432.

 

Higher intakes of whole grain or whole-grain products, compared to lower intakes, was significantly associated with an 11–18% lower risk of total or cause-specific mortality. When intake of whole grain products was converted to an estimated grams of whole grain (assuming 16g per serving), each 50-g/d increase in whole-grain intake was associated with 22%, 30%, and 18% lower risk of dying from any cause, CVD, and cancer, respectively. Risk reduction benefits were seen even at the lower ranges of whole grain intake suggesting that even adding small amounts of whole grain to the diet still has benefits.

 

 

May 2016: Cereal eaters are slimmer, have better nutrient and fibre intakes compared to skippers and those who eat other breakfasts.

 

http://www.cereal4brekkie.org.au/bowled-over-at-breakfast/

 

A recent analysis of the Australian Health Survey has shown that breakfast cereals are not the poor food choice they are made out to be. In fact, breakfast cereals make an important contribution to nutrient intakes, particularly for dietary fibre, calcium and iron- nutrients of which Australians are not getting enough. In addition, the total sugars in breakfast cereals account for less than two per cent of kilojoule intake in the diets of Australians who consume it. This adds to other recent data showing that breakfast cereal contributes less than 3% of our added sugar intake. The research also showed that the adults who ate breakfast cereals had slimmer waists and were more likely to be a healthy weight than people who ate other breakfasts. They also had lower sodium intakes and were more likely to meet their nutrient requirements.

 

 

February 2016: Eating breakfast is associated with increased physical activity and improved insulin sensitivity compared to skipping

 

E. A. Chowdhury et al. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in obese adults. Am J Clin Nutrition 2016; DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.115.122044

 

This randomised control trial analysed the relationship between breakfast and health outcomes for obese individuals, comparing the results from a fasting group (breakfast skippers) with a breakfast group.

There were no differences in energy intake across the day which means that skippers were likely to make up for the calories later in the day and therefore there were no differences in weight status. However, obese individuals who ate breakfast had higher physical activity levels in the morning and reduced food intake later in the day.

This study also provides evidence that sustained daily breakfast omission affects some indexes of insulin sensitivity in obese individuals and adds to the body of evidence that breakfast consumption can maintain insulin sensitivity and glycaemic control.

 

 

December 2015: Breakfast cereal consumption associated with reduced risk of mortality

 

Xu M et al. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality:Prospective Analysis of 367,442 Individuals, J Am College Nutr. DOI:10.1080/07315724.2014.971193.

 

A recently published study from Harvard University has found that a regular breakfast cereal habit is associated with a reduced risk of death from chronic disease.

The research examined the diets of 367,442 people followed up after 14 years, as part of the prospective National Institutes of Health AARP Diet and Health Study.

The data showed that people with the highest intake of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (22.5g/day, equivalent to four 40g serves a week) had the greatest risk reductions – 15% for all-cause mortality, 24% for cardiovascular disease, 13% for digestive cancer mortality and 10% for all cancer – compared to people who did not have ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. The researchers also found that among ready-to-eat breakfast cereal eaters, higher fibre intakes appear to be even more protective.

 

 

March 2015: Cereal fibre and whole grains associated with reduced risk of mortality

 

Huang et al. Consumption of whole grains and cereal fiber and total and cause-specificmortality: prospective analysis of 367,442 individuals. BMC Medicine 2015; 13:59 DOI10.1186/s12916-015-0294-7

 

Harvard researchers examined the diets of 367,442 people from the prospective National Institutes of Health – AARP Diet and Health Study, with an average follow-up period of 14 years.

The study showed that those with the highest cereal fibre intakes had a 19% reduced risk of death from all causes, 15% reduced risk of death from cancer and 34% reduced risk of death from diabetes.

In addition to the benefits of cereal fibre, the study reported that eating an average of 34g of whole grains a day was associated with a 17% reduced risk of death from all causes, an 11% reduced risk of death from respiratory disease and a 48% reduction in the risk of diabetes.

 

 

March 2015: Cereal grains associated with beneficial effects on plasma glucose and cholesterol levels

 

Singhal P & Kaushik G. Therapeutic effect of cereal grains – A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr.2015; DOI: 0.10.1080/10408398.2012.714417

 

This paper aimed to review the antidiabetic and antilipidemic potential of cereal grains such as rye, barley, millet, sorghum, wheat, oats, rice, corn, sago and buckwheat. Forty-five articles were included in the final review, of which 20 were animal studies. All included studies demonstrated that cereal grains possess therapeutic properties and help in lowering blood glucose levels and/or maintaining blood cholesterol levels.

 

 

Feb 2015: Breakfast skipping related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes

 

Bi H et al. Breakfast skipping and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of observationalstudies. Public Health Nutr. 2015; 7:1-7.

 

This is the first meta-analysis of observational studies on breakfast skipping and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the results suggest that breakfast skipping is associated with a significantly increased risk of T2DM. Compared with individuals who consume breakfast regularly, the risk of T2DM was increased by 21% in cohort studies and 15% in cross-sectional studies for breakfast skippers. This significant positive association was also consistent in cohort studies after adjusting for confounding factors.

 

 

Jan 2015: Whole grain intake is associated with reduced risk of mortality

 

Wu H et al. Association between dietary whole grain intake and risk of mortality - Two large prospective studies in US men and women. JAMA Intern Med. 2015;175(3):373-384.

 

Higher whole grain consumption, with or without added bran or germ, was associated with lower mortality, especially deaths due to CVD, in US men and women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. Every one-ounce serving of whole grains was associated with a 5% lower total risk of death, or a 9% lower risk of death from heart disease. Whole grain intake was not significantly associated with cancer mortality.

 

 

December 2014: Whole grains may be more protective against major chronic disease than fruits and vegetables

 

Fardet, A, Boirie, Y. Associations between food and beverage groups and major diet-related chronic diseases: an exhaustive review of pooled/meta-analyses and systematic reviews. Nutr Reviews. 2014. Vol 72 (12):741-762.

 

A comprehensive review of more than 300 meta-analyses and systematic reviews published over the past 60 years. The review found that whole grain products are more likely to be protective against type 2 diabetes, CVD and cancers than fruits and vegetables.

 

 

September 2014: Systematic review of the health benefits of breakfast cereal

 

Williams PG. The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: A systematic review of the evidence base. Adv Nutr 2014; 5:636S-673S.

 

A systematic literature review conducted by Professor Peter Williams, showed that eating breakfast cereal is associated with several health benefits.

Breakfast cereal eaters have more nutritious diets and are more likely to be meeting recommended nutrient intakes than people who eat other options, or who have no breakfast at all.

Regularly eating breakfast cereal is associated with a lower BMI and a 12% lower risk of being overweight or obese and in both adults and children. Whole grain and high-fibre breakfast cereal is also associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (24%) and cardiovascular disease (28%).

There was no difference in the weight status or energy intake of children who consume pre-sweetened breakfast cereal compared to those that don’t.

 

 

September 2014: Dietary fibre intake associated with reduced risk of mortality

 

Pilar Buil-Cosiales et al. Fiber intake and all-cause mortality in the Prevencion con Dieta Mediterranea (PREDIMED) study. Am J Clin Nutr 2014;100:1498–507.

 

This study investigated the association of fibre, whole-grain, fruit and vegetable intake with all-cause mortality in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular disease risk. Higher baseline intakes of fibre or fruit were inversely associated with all-cause mortality. Those with the highest fibre intakes (more than 20g per day) had a 37% reduction in risk of death.